Massachusetts Medical Society: Health Risks of Recreational Marijuana

Health Risks of Recreational Marijuana

Psychological Effects

Pulmonary Effects

Cardiovascular Disease


  1. Volkow, ND et al. Effect of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, motivation, and psychosis: A Review.”
    JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 (73).
  2. Volkow ND, et al. Adverse Effects of Marijuana Use.
    NEJM. 2014 370;23 2219-27
  3. Pardini D, et al. Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning?
    J Abnorm Child Psychol 2015 43:1203–1217
  4. Hall W, et al. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.
    Lancet 2009;374: 1383–91
  5. Stiby AI, et al. Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study.
    Addiction 2015 110, 658–668
  6. Auer R, et al. Association Between Lifetime Marijuana Use and Cognitive Function in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.
    JAMA Internal Medicine online February 01, 2016
  7. Battistella G, et al. Long-term effects of cannabis on brain structure.
    Neuropsychopharmacology (2014) 39, 2041–2048
  8. Gilman JM, Kuster JK Lee S et al. Cannabis Use Is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users.
    Neurosci 2014; 34:5529-5538
  9. Bui QM, et al. Psychiatric and Medical Management of Marijuana Intoxication in the Emergency Department.
    Western Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume XVI no. 3:May 2015 414-17
  10. Niesink RM, et al. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC?
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 2013. Volume 4 Article 130 1-8
  11. Asbridge M, et al. Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis.
    BMJ 2012;344:e536
  12. Romano E, et al. Drugs and Alcohol: Their Relative Crash Risk.
    Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Jan 2014. 56-64
  13. El Marroun H, et al. Intrauterine cannabis exposure affects fetal growth trajectories: the Generation R Study.
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 Dec;48(12):1173-81
  14. Saurel-Cubizolles MJ, et al. Cannabis use during pregnancy in France in 2010.
    BJOG. 2014 Jul;121(8):971-7
  15. Gordon AJ, et al. Medical Consequences of Marijuana Use: A Review of Current Literature.
    Curr Psychiatry Rep (2013) 15:419




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