Health Risks of Recreational Marijuana

Psychological Effects

Pulmonary Effects

Cardiovascular Disease


  1. Volkow, ND et al. Effect of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, motivation, and psychosis: A Review.”
    JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 (73).
  2. Volkow ND, et al. Adverse Effects of Marijuana Use.
    NEJM. 2014 370;23 2219-27
  3. Pardini D, et al. Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning?
    J Abnorm Child Psychol 2015 43:1203–1217
  4. Hall W, et al. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.
    Lancet 2009;374: 1383–91
  5. Stiby AI, et al. Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study.
    Addiction 2015 110, 658–668
  6. Auer R, et al. Association Between Lifetime Marijuana Use and Cognitive Function in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.
    JAMA Internal Medicine online February 01, 2016
  7. Battistella G, et al. Long-term effects of cannabis on brain structure.
    Neuropsychopharmacology (2014) 39, 2041–2048
  8. Gilman JM, Kuster JK Lee S et al. Cannabis Use Is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users.
    Neurosci 2014; 34:5529-5538
  9. Bui QM, et al. Psychiatric and Medical Management of Marijuana Intoxication in the Emergency Department.
    Western Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume XVI no. 3:May 2015 414-17
  10. Niesink RM, et al. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC?
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 2013. Volume 4 Article 130 1-8
  11. Asbridge M, et al. Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis.
    BMJ 2012;344:e536
  12. Romano E, et al. Drugs and Alcohol: Their Relative Crash Risk.
    Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Jan 2014. 56-64
  13. El Marroun H, et al. Intrauterine cannabis exposure affects fetal growth trajectories: the Generation R Study.
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 Dec;48(12):1173-81
  14. Saurel-Cubizolles MJ, et al. Cannabis use during pregnancy in France in 2010.
    BJOG. 2014 Jul;121(8):971-7
  15. Gordon AJ, et al. Medical Consequences of Marijuana Use: A Review of Current Literature.
    Curr Psychiatry Rep (2013) 15:419




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Health Risks of Recreational Marijuana

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